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Irrigation and Melioration

Abstract

The problem of dramatically changing river flow in the reaches of hydro-technical structures is considered in the paper. The discharge capacity of these structures is determined by the well-known formula of a spillway with a wide threshold based on the Saint-Venant system of equations. It was stated that the Froude number in an undisturbed flow increases at the narrowing of the channel and decreases with its widening, and in a turbulent flow the Froude number decreases with the narrowing of the channel, and increases with its widening. Proceeding from this, the transition of a flow from a calm regime to a turbulent one can occur only when the form of the channel transfers from a narrow form to a wide one; in the narrowest section of the channel flow, the Froude number and the kinetic parameter is Fr=Pk=1,0. The characteristic features of the flow coefficient of a spillway with a wide threshold are identified and a recommendation is given for its determination. The main factor that affects the discharge capacity of a spillway with a wide threshold is analyzed. It is determined by the product of the values of the hydraulic resistance and compression coefficients in the inlet of the structure.

References

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