Irrigation and Melioration


The study analyzes the importance of income from non-farm activities (all economic activities except agriculture) in family farms and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the basis of an online survey (Multinomial logistics regression model). A total of 1281 participants aged 16 to 76 were surveyed and 648 participants engaged in non-farm activities were selected for analyse. The analysis found that the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the income of 59% of households from non-farm activities. During the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase in the number of people with higher education in the family by one unit increased income from non-farm activities by 40.7% (or 0.407 coefficient), meaning that household members' education was found to be important in increasing family income. Moreover, the location of family farms in urban areas increased the family's income from non-farm activities by 36.2% (or 0.362 coefficient), and an increase in the amount of consumption per unit due to a decrease in food prices was found to increase income from non-farm activities by 52.5 percent (or 0.525 coefficient). In addition, it was found that the change in non-farm income is influenced by the age of the population, the amount of consumption and debt.

First Page


Last Page



1. A. O. Idowu, A. Banwo, and E. O. Akerele, “Non-farm Activities and Poverty among Rural Farm Households in Yewa Division of Ogun State,” vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 217–224, 2011. doi:10.1080/09718923.2011.11892899

2. T. Reardon and J. Berdegue, “Rural Nonfarm Employment and Incomes in Latin America,” Prep. BID Semin. "Desarrollo del Empl. Rural No Agric. Inter-American Dev. Bank, UNECLA, FAO, SIMISP, Santiago, Chile, 6-8 Sept. 1999, vol. 29, no.3, p. 28, 1999. www. sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305-750X(00)00112-1

3. A. K. M. A. Al-Amina and M. J. Hossainb, “Impact of non-farm income on welfare in rural Bangladesh : Multilevel mixed-effects regression approach,” World Dev. Perspect., vol. 13, no. November 2017, pp. 95–102, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.wdp.2019.02.014.

4. S. Hadijah, C. Mat, A. Zafarullah, A. Jalil, and M. Harun, “Does Non-Farm Income Improve The Poverty and Income Inequality Among Agricultural Household In Rural Kedah ?,” vol. 1, no. 12, pp. 269–275, 2012, doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(12)00031-7.

5. M. J. Hossain and A. K. M. A. Al-amin, “Non-farm Income and Consumption Expenditures in Rural Bangladesh : Empirical Evidence from Multilevel,” J. Quant. Econ., 2018, doi: 10.1007/s40953-018-0134-7.

6. S. Hasanov and G. Sanaev, “Non-farm employment trends and policy in rural areas of Samarkand region,” 2018. DISCUSSION PAPER №176. Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), pp.28

7. Worldometer., “Countries where COVID-19 has spread,” 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/countries- where-coronavirus-has-spread/.

8. https://lex.uz/docs/4776669 - Ўзбекистон Республикаси Президенти Фармони. “Иқтисодиётни ривожлантириш ва камбағалликни қисқартиришга оид давлат сиёсатини тубдан янгилаш чора-тадбирлари тўғрисида.,” ПФ-5975-сон., Тошкент, Mar. 26, 2020.

9. https://mineconomy.uz - Республика иқтисодиётидаги жорий ҳолат ва кутилаётган тенденциялар.pdf, 2020. [Online].

10. X. Diao and K. Mahrt, “Assessing the Impact on Household Incomes and Poverty of Declines in Remittances Due to COVID-19,” Strateg. Support Progr. POLICY, vol. 06, 2020, [Online]. Available: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getfile/collection/p15738coll2/id/133752/ filename/133963.pdf.

11. IMF, “POLICY RESPONSES TO COVID-19,” 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses- to-COVID-19#U. 12. IFPRI, “Virtual Event - COVID-19’s Short-term Impacts on Economies, Food Systems and Poverty in African and Asian Countries: Economywide Estimates from Economywide Models,” 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.ifpri.org/event/virtual-event-covid-19s-short- term-impacts-economies-food-systems-and-poverty-african-and.

13. R. Baldwin and B. W. di. Mauro, “Mitigating the COVID Economic Crisis: Act Fast and Do Whatever It Takes.,” in Ewi-Vlaanderen.Be., Centre for., CEPR Press, 2020, pp. 1–227.

14. Y. Qiana and W. Fanb., “Who loses income during the COVID-19 outbreak? Evidence from China,” Res. Soc. Stratif. Mobil., vol. 68, no. 100522, p. 5, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2020.100522.

15. https://lex.uz/docs/4770761 - Ўзбекистон Республикаси Президентининг Фармони. “Коронавирус пандемияси ва глобал инқироз ҳолатларининг иқтисодиёт тармоқларига салбий таъсирини юмшатиш бўйича биринчи навбатдаги чора-тадбирлар тўғрисида.” ПФ-5969-сон, Тошкент, Mar. 19, 2020. 16. https://lex.uz/docs/4800005 - Ўзбекистон Республикаси Президентининг Фармони. “Коронавирус пандемияси даврида аҳоли ва тадбиркорлик субъектларини қўллаб-қувватлаш бўйича қўшимча чора-тадбирлар тўғрисида." ПФ-5986 сон, Тошкент, Apr. 27, 2020.

17. A. Yúnez-Naude and J. Edward Taylor, “The determinants of nonfarm activities and incomes of rural households in Mexico, with emphasis on education,” World Development, vol. 29, no. 3. pp. 561–572, 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0305-750X(00)00108-X.

18. H. Liao, T. Chen, X. Tang, and J. Wu, “Fuel choices for cooking in China: Analysis based on multinomial logit model,” Clean. Prod., vol. 225, p. 104—111, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.302

19. A. M. El-Habil, “An Application on Multinomial Logistic Regression Model,” Pakistan J. Stat. Oper. Res., vol. Vol.VIII N, pp. pp 271-291, 2012. doi:10.1234/pjsor.v8i2.234

20. M. L. Rahman and D. Baker, “Modelling induced mode switch behaviour in Bangladesh: A multinomial logistic regression approach,” Transport Policy, vol. 71. pp. 81–91, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2018.09.006.

21. G.-R. Jorge, J. Fernandez-Ramos, A. K. Garcia-Guerra, and G. Morales-Ramirez, “The dynamics of poverty in Mexico: A multinomial logistic regression analysis,” Munich Pers. RePEc Arch., vol. No. 77743, p. 14, 2017, [Online]. Available: https://1library.net



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.