Philology Matters


Language, as the information carrier, has become the most significant means for humans to communicate. However, it has been considered as the barrier of communications between people from different countries. The problem of converting a language quickly and efficiently has become a problem of common concern for humanity. In fact, the demand for language translation has greatly increased in recent times due to effect of cross-regional communication and the need for information exchange. Most material needs to be translated, including scientific and technical documentation, instruction manuals, legal documents, textbooks, publicity leaflets, newspaper reports, etc. The issue is challenging and difficult but mostly it is tedious and repetitive and requires consistency and accuracy. It is becoming difficult for professional translators to meet the increasing demands of translation. In such a situation, the machine translation can be used as a substitute. Machine Translation is the process of converting a natural source language into another natural target language by computer. It is a branch of natural language processing and it has a close relationship with computational linguistics and natural language understanding. With the rapid development of the Internet and the integration of the world economy, how to overcome the barrier of language has become a common problem of the international community. This paper offers an overview of Machine Translation (MT) including the history of MT, linguistic problems of MT, the problem of multiple meanings in MT, syntactic transformations in MT, translation of phraseological combinations in MT systems.

First Page


Last Page





1. Bar Hillel, Y. (1960). The Present Status of Automatic Translation of Languages. Advances in Computers (Vol. 1, pp. 91-100, 150-160). Academic Press. New York.
2. Borisevich, A.D. (1972). English-Russian automatic turnover dictionary: On the problem of idiomatic handling of the text in the man-machine-man (pp.28-36). Russia.
3. Hany, H., & Anthony, A. (2018). Achieving human parity on automatic Chinese to English News Translation (pp. 1-4). Archive preprint archive:1803.05567. USA.
4. Hutchins, W.J., Horwood, N.Y., & Chichester, E. (1986). Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future (pp. 21-34). Wiley. New York.
5. Hutchins, W.J. (1994). Research methods and system designs in machine translation: a tenyear review. Machine Translation. Cranfield University. UK.166 p.
6. Hutchins, J. (2005). The history of machine translation in a nutshell. UK. 32 p.
7. John, H., Evgenii, L., & Petr, P.T. (2000). A forgotten pioneer of mechanical translation. Machine translation (pp. 187–221). Moscow.
8. Kent, R.L. (1999). Materials from Machine Translation Summit VII (pp. 13-17). Singapore.
9. Kozerenko, Ye.B. (2007). Verb-nominal transformations in English-Russian machine translation (pp. 18-38). Moscow.
10. Krasnova, T.I. (2015). Machine translation error analysis. New York.
11. Kulagina, O.S. (1979). Research on machine translation. Moscow.30 p.
12. Kurdi, M.Z. (2017). Automatic Speech Processing and Natural Languages: Semantics, Discourse and Applications (pp. 2-6). London.
13. Marchuk, Yu.N. (1983). Machine translation problems. Moscow. 40 p.
14. Marchuk, Yu.N. (2000). Foundations of Computational Linguistics. Moscow.35 p.
15. Michele, E. (1991). Grammatical Polysemy. The Systematicity of Multiple Meanings in Grammar (pp. 2-3). State University of New York at Albany.
16. Nelyubin, L.L. (1991). Computational linguistics and machine translation. Ukraine. 20 p.
17. Novikov, L.A. (2011). Contemporary Russian Language (pp. 1-3). Moscow, Russia.
18. Quine, W.V. (1987). Quiddities: An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary (pp. 20-32). Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. London.
19. Sebastian, P., Michel, G., Dan, J., & Chris, M. (2009). Robust Machine Translation Evaluation with Entailment Features. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the ACL and the 4th IJCNLP of the AFNLP (pp. 297–305). Singapore.
20. Semenov, A.L. (2008). Modern information technology and translation (pp. 6-8). Moscow, Russia.
21. Van, S.G. (1983). Better Translation for Better Communications (pp. 60-65). Pergamon Press: Paris.
22. Voronovich, V.V. (2013). Machine translation. Minsk. 22 p.
23. Warren, W. (1955) Translation (pp. 19-23). Cambridge, Mass.: Technology Press of M.I.T. London.
24. Warren, W. (1955). Translation. Machine translation of languages (pp. 15–23). London.
25. http://www.dialog.ru/digests/dialog2007/materials/html/43.htm
26. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700008977
27. https://moluch.ru/archive/89/18290/



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.