Lexical Paradigmatic And Its Variants
The article deals with the issues of lexical paradigms from the point of view of their application in various layers of vocabulary. At the beginning of the article, the definition of the term “paradigm” from different sources is given, as well as information regarding the emergence and application of the term in science. From this point of view, the works of Ferdinand de Saussure, L. Elmslev, A. S. Pardaev and other authors are considered. Special attention is paid to syntagmatic and associative (paradigmatic) relations between language units. Paradigmatic relations, unlike syntagmatic relations, are considered as nonlinear and nonsimultaneous in a stream of speech or text, they are represented as relations between elements of a language that are united in the mind or memory of a person by some association. Based on the fact that the main constituent elements of lexical paradigms are antonyms, homonyms, paronyms, synonyms, groups, semantic fields, the main emphasis is placed on the study of these lexical units. Synonymy has been studied in terms of the degree of similarity, identity, and proximity of meanings. Antonyms, unlike synonyms, are based on the opposition of meanings. Relationships of closeness and opposition of semantics are logically reduced to four types of oppositions: zero, privative, equipalent, and disjunctive. Each of them has its own type of semantic relations: relations of identity, inclusion, intersection, or exclusion. The article also discusses the question of the synonyms of the meaning of the terms "lexeme" and "word", "lexical meaning" and "lexicosemantic variant". Since the organization of vocabulary has close interaction with lexical paradigms, examples of the use of synonyms and antonyms in linguistic dictionaries are given. In particular, the options for bringing a synonymic series to protect are considered in the “Dictionary of Synonyms of the Russian Language” by A. P. Evgeneva and the Antonymic pair CLOSEFAR in the “Dictionary of Antonyms of the Russian Language” by M. R. Lvov.