Oriental studies


This article, devoted to the analysis of parts of speech in the works of Makhmud Zamakhshari, addresses the question of conjugation of verbs in the last chapter named “Tasrifu-l-af’al” of the book “Mukaddamatu-l-adab”. The article emphasizes that the verb is an important part of speech in Arabic, that it is impossible to master the grammatical rules and categories without knowing its morphological features, that some parts of speech, especially masdars, the degrees of adjectives are formed from verbal roots. In “Mukaddamatu-l-Adab” was written that verbs in Arabic are divided into verbs with three and four roots and the majority are the verbs with three roots. Verbs with four roots, as well as verbs with three roots, lean with the help of those suffixes and prefixes. In the formation of the present tense forms, imperative forms, masdars, participles are also based on the same rules as for three-verbs. Makhmud Zamakhshari, defining the doubled verbs as verbs in the three-root group, in which the second and third roots consist of the same letter, emphasizes that the hamza is a “healthy” letter, not defective, and because of its complex pronunciation it is either changed with another letter or sometimes it is missed when pronounced and this provides ease of pronunciation. The question of writing hamza and its spelling has always been a difficult question of the language. Since Zamakhshari created his work for the quick study of Arabic and its grammar by non-Arab people, he did not go deeply into the essence of some difficult questions of Arabic language. The scientist notices that ings are added to the verbs of the actual voice gives samples conjugation of regular verbs in the past tense, and says that all regular verbs and verbs that are similar to regular verbs are conjugated in the above order. In his work, Zamahshari gave a sample of the conjugations of the verbs of the passive voice and examples of adding personal endings to such verbs, as well as conjugations of regular verbs, and verbs similar to regular verbs, empty and defective verbs. The scholar’s work not only gave conjugation of verbs, but also provided exceptions to the rules, it also highlighted a separate chapter in the interpretation of the imperative form in Arabic. The work contains information that the formation of an imperative form from verbs of the present-future tense. The article emphasizes that the verbs of surprise are formed only from the first chapter of the three-root verbs, that such forms are not formed from verbs expressing physical imperfection. Ways of expressing astonishment from doubled and defective verbs are commented. Regarding the verb conjugation, which is devoted to the chapter on the study of infinitives (masdar), the author dwells on the names of actions, ways of forming masdars from empty verbs, gives definition to real and passive participles, gives examples of their formation. This chapter provides information on the formation of real and passive participles from the derived chapters and four-root verbs, an interpretation of the adjective forms of the excellent and comparative degrees.

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Mahmud Zamaxshariy. Muqaddamatu-l-adab O‘zR FA Abu Rayhon Beruniy nomidagi Sharqshunoslik instituti fondi, qo‘lyozma, inv № 429-V. 362a. Grande B.M. Kurs arabskoy grammatiki v sravnitelno-istoricheskom osvyaщenii. – M.: Vost. lit., 1998. S.125.