Oriental studies


This article describes the period of formation and consolidation of the Kazakh Khanate as a political state from the 70s of XVth century – till the 30s of XVIIIth century and the characteristics of this period, Khanate’s territory, the state structure, the form of government, the relations with neighboring countries, socio-economic life of the population are analyzed in this research. The role of Kazakh Zhuzs in the country’s life is also studied. The Kazakh Khans such as Qosim Khan, Haqnazar Khan, Tauke Khan who ruled during this period, their policy to expand and strengthen the country’s territory are analyzed systematically. Successful conquering works of Kazakh Khans for the expansion of the territory of the Western Zhetysu, eastern Dashty Kipchak, Central Kazakhstan, the Northern Aral Sea, the lower reaches of Syr Darya River, the tribal settlements of Qoratov and its adjacent territories are discussed. The Kazakh Khans’ relationships with Sultan Saidkhan (Mongolia), Abdullahkhan (Bukhara), Nogay and Siberian khanates were also investigated. The brutal military aggression of Junggar Khanate against Kazakh Khanate and the struggles of Kazakh population against them were described. The necessity to organize the Kazakh society with the establishment of the Kazakh Khanate and the change of its political system led to the strengthening of the country’s legislative bases, the conditions created for the state and society and the process continued in the XVIIth century and Tauke Khan established “Zheti-zharga” and it started to consider as a form of law. This article gives information on “Zheti-zharga” which was the Code of Conduct of Kazakh Khanate, including administrative, civil, criminal, tax systems, it analyzes the objectiv and subjective causes of the “Zheti-zharga”, the historical conditions of the period, the types of penalties used for crime and the role of the document in the community. The fact that the criminal procedure in the Kazakh Khanate is defined by “Zhetizharga’s” norm, the conduct of criminal proceedings in the khanate according to this document, the criminal law in the Kazakh society, the criminal liability against the person, criminal offenses against property, “Zheti-zharga”, which is a legal document that incorporates issues of legal relations.

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