Scientific Bulletin of Namangan State University


Artemisinin in combination with other drugs is used to treat the parasite of malaria, one of the most dangerous parasitic diseases in the world. Due to the very low content of artemisin (~ 0.5-1.2%) in A. annua, it does not satisfy the need for artemisin. Methods of metabolic engineering and genetic engineering are used for microorganisms, Artemisia annua and other plants to solve this problem. This review provides information on the metabolic pathways of artemisinin biosynthesis in any gene involved that have been studied in recent years. By metabolic injection, it can obtain large amounts of artemisinin from Artemisia annua and other plants. This will decrease the price of artemisinin in the future and brings tremendous benefits to millions of people around the world.

First Page


Last Page



1. By Melissa Hogenboom (2016). The most dangerous malaria-causing parasite infected its first human victim far more recently than we thought BBC http://www.bbc.com 2. Population reference bureau prb.org (2002). Malaria basics: global impact and actions www.prb.org 3. Malaria: retreat of a centuries-old scourge (2016). www.who.int/publications 4. Klayman D.L. 1985. Qinghaosu (artemisinin)—An antimalarial drug from China. Science 228: 1049–1055. 5. Romero MR, Eferth T, Serrano MA, Castano B, Macias RI, Briz O, Marin JJ (2005) Efect of artemisinin/artesunate as inhibitors of hepatitis B virus production in an in vitro replicative system. Antivir Res 68:75–83 6. Lubbe A, Seibert I, Klimkait T, Andn der Kooy F (2012) Ethnopharmacology in overdrive: the remarkable anti-HIV activity of Artemisia annua. J Ethnopharmacol 141:854–859 7. Looa CSN, Lama NSK, Yua D, Sub X, Lud F (2017) Artemisinin and its deriandtives in treating protozoan infections beyond malaria. Pharm Res 117:192–217 8. Zhang L, Jing F, Li F, Li M, Wang Y, Wang G, Sun X, Tang K (2009) Development of transgenic Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood) plants with an enhanced content of artemisinin, an efective antimalarial drug, by hairpin-RNA mediated gene silencing. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 52:199–207 9. Abdin MZ, Israr M, Rehman RU, Jain SK (2003) Artemisinin, a novel antimalarial drug: biochemical and molecular approaches for enhanced production. Planta Med 69:289–299 10. Ravindranathan T, Anil Kumar M, Menon RB, Hiremath SV (1990) Stereo selective synthesis of artemisinin. Tetrahedron Lett 31:755–758 11. Graham IA, Besser K, Blumer S, Branigan CA, Czechowski T, Elias L, Larson TR (2010) The genetic map of Artemisia annua L. identifes loci afecting yield of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. Science 327:328–331 12. Xiao L, Tan H, Zhang L (2016) Artemisia annua glandular secretory trichomes: the biofactory of antimalarial agent artemisinin. Sci Bull 61:26–36 13. Shen Q, Yan T, Fu X, Tang K (2016) Transcriptional regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. Sci Bull 61:18–25 14. Alam P, Kamaluddin, Sharaf-Eldin MA, Shereen EF, Abdin MZ (2016) The efect of over-expression of rate limiting enzymes on the yield of artemisinin in Artemisia annua. Ren Fis Acc Lincei 27:311–319 15. Romman S (2016) Genotypic response to heat stress in durum wheat and the expression of small HSP genes. Rend Fis Acc Lincei 27:261–267 16. Sane KA, Hesham AL (2015) Biochemical and genetic evidences of anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in a selected tomato mutant. Rend Fis Accad Lincei 26:293 306 17. Abdin MZ, Alam P (2015) Genetic engineering of artemisinin biosynthesis: prospects to improve its production. Acta Physiol Plant 37:33 18. Paddon CJ, Westfall P, Pitera D, Benjamin K, Fisher K, McPhee D, Leavell M, Tai A, Main A, Eng D (2013) High-level semi-synthetic production of the potent antimalarial artemisinin. Nature 496:528–532 19. Roth R.J. and Acton N. (1989). The isolation of sesquiterpines from Artemisia annua. Journal of Chemical Education 66(4): 349–350. 20. Brown G.D. and Sy L.-K. 2007. In vivo transformations of artemisinic acid in Artemisia annua plants. Tetrahedron 63(38): 9548–9566. 21. Towler MJ, Weathers PJ (2007) Evidence of artemisinin production from IPP stemming from both the mevalonate and the nonmevalonate pathways. Plant Cell Rep 26:2129–2136 22. Ram M, Khan MA, Jha P, Khan S, Kiran U, Ahmad MM, Abdin MZ (2010) HMG-CoA reductase limits artemisinin biosynthesis and accumulation in Artemisia annua L. plants. Acta Physiol Plant 32:859–866 23. Ro DK, Paradise EM, Ouellet M, Fisher KJ, Newman KL, Ndungu JM, Ho KA, Eachus RA, Ham TS, Kirby J, Chang MC, Withers ST, Shiba Y, Sarpong R, Keasling JD (2006) Production of the antimalarial drug precursor artemisinic acid in engineered yeast. Nature 440:940–943 24. Wang H, Song Y, Shen H, Liu Y, Li Z, Wang H (2012) Efect o antisense squalene synthase gene expression on the increase of artemisinin content in Artemisia anuua. In: Çiftçi YO (ed) Transgenic plants—advances and limitations. InTech, Rijeka. ISBN 978-953-51-0181-9 25. Wang H, Han J, Kanagarajan S, Lundgren A, Brodelius PE (2013) Studies on the expression of sesquiterpene synthases using promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions in transgenic Artemisia annua L. PLoS One 8(11):e80643 26. Athar A, Malik MA, Mather AK 2017 RNAi-mediated modulation of squalene synthase gene expression in Artemisia annua L. and its impact on artemisinin biosynthesis Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. 27. Teun W. J. M. van Herpen TW,Cankar K,Nogueira M,Bosch D Harro J. Bouwmeester, and Jules Beekwilder 2010 Nicotiana benthamiana as a production platform for artemisinin precursors. plos.org 28. Paddon, C. J., and Keasling, J. D. (2014). Semi-synthetic artemisinin: a model for the use of synthetic biology in pharmaceutical development. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 12, 355–367. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3240 29. Peplow, M. (2016). Synthetic biology’s first malaria drug meets market resistance. Nature 530, 389–390. doi: 10.1038/530390a



Included in

Education Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.