This paper discusses the role of age in Second Language Acquisition and presents the different results of relevant researches on this topic. It also compares the results and conclusions of researches conducted by 20 scholars, linguistics and researchers. Furthermore, it explains why and when this issue began to draw attention of linguistics along with interpretating the Critical Period Hypothesis by Lenneberg ( 1967). It further aims to examine whether young L2 learners are better than adult L2 learners. Taking all research together, it concludes that even though adult second language learners may achieve particular succes in SLA especially in terms of grammar, the early age in SLA is supported considering the fact that young learners will eventually surpass adult second language learners in final stage of acquisition.
1. Lenneberg, E, H. (1967). Biological Foundations Of Language Learning. New York: Wiley. p.176 2. Lamendella, T. (1977). General principles of neuro-functional organization and their manifestation in primary and nonprimary language acquisition. Language Learning, 27. p175 3. Johnson, J & E, Newport (1989). Critical period effect in language learning: the influence of maturational state on the acquisition of ESL. Cognitivr Psuchology, 21. p 64 4. Oyama, S. (1976). A sensitive period for the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. p.85 5. Harley, B. Age in Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters. 1986 p.112 6. Singleton, D and L, Ryan Language Acquisition: Age factor. UK: Multilingual Matters. 2004. p.61 7. Patkowski, M “ The sensitive period for the acquisition of syntax in a second language”. Language learning30/2.1980 p.73/ 89.) 8. Thompson, E. Foreign Accents Revisited: English Pronunciation in Russian Immigrants. Language Learning, 41. 1991. ] p.24 9. Weinrech, U. Language in Contact. The Hague, Netherlands, Mouton. 1953] p.35 10. Johnson, L & Newport, E. Critical Period Effects in Second Language Learning. The influence of Maturational State on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Pyschology.60-99.1989 p.42 11. Morford, J and R, Mayberry. A reexamination of "early exposure" and its importance for language acquisition by eye. In C, Chamberlain, J.Morford and R. Mayberry. Acquisition by Eye, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 2000. p.111 12. Ekstrand, L. Age and length of residence as variables related to the adjustment of migrant children with special reference to second language learning. 1976. p.130 13. Herschensohn, J. Language Development and Age. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.2007. p.411 14. Krashen, S, M.Long and R, Scarcella. Age, rate and eventual attainment in second language acquisition. TESOL.Quarterly, 13. 1979. p.38 15. Snow, C and M. Hoefnagel-Hohle. ‘The critical period for language acquisition; Evidence from second language learning’. Child Development 49/4. 1978. p.28 16. Felix, S. More evidence on competing cognitive systems. Second Language Research 1(1). 1985. p.33 17. Singleton, D. Language Acquisition, age factor, UK: Multilingual Matters. 1989. p.130 18. Felix, S. Age Constraints on Second Language Acquisition. Journal of Age and Accuracy of Foreign Language Pronunciation. Journal of Educational Research, 66. 1994. p.18 19. Cochrane, R. The Acquisition of /r/ and /l/ by Japanese Children and Adults Learning English as a Second Language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1. 1980. p.19 20. Bley-Vroman, R. The logic problem of foreign language learning. Linguistic Analysis, 20.1990. p.20
Abdukadyrova, Gulbakhor and Suyunova, Mohinur Ilhom qizi
"THE AGE FACTOR IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND DIFFERENCES
IN REACHING PROFICIENCY,"
Scientific Bulletin of Namangan State University: Vol. 1
, Article 49.
Available at: https://uzjournals.edu.uz/namdu/vol1/iss3/49