International Relations: Politics, Economics, Law


The article analyses several aspects of American foreign policy in terms of its realization in innovative and traditional ways. Author explains aspects of innovation and tradition in American foreign policy in three topics: unique features of American political development and its influence on foreign policy, interpretations in strategic thinking regarding the role of US before and after the Cold War and suggestions for understanding the importance of American foreign policy for Uzbekistan in the current and rapidly evolving world order.

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1. Citing Thomas Jefferson’s injunction against “entangling alliances”, David Fromkin in a famous article published in the jou rnal Foreign Affairs in 1970, noted, “From 1789 until the Second World War, excepting only ou r relationshi p with Panama, the United States refused to enter into treaties of alliance with anyone. In the 25 years since the end of the war, however, in a dramatic reversal of national policy, we have allied ou rselves with half the world.” David Fromkin, “Entangling Alliances.” Foreign Affairs. Vol. 48, No. 4 (July 1970): pp. 688-698. (Sou rce: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1970- 07-01/entangling-alliances) Michael Beckley, “The Myth of Entangling Alliances: Reassessing the Secu rity Risks of U.S. Defense Pacts.” International Security. Vol. 39, No. 4 (Spring 2015): pp. 7–48. Also see Adam Taylor. “Map: The U.S. is bound by treaties to defend a quarter of humanity.” The Washington Post. May 30, 2015. (Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/05/30/ map-the-u-s-is-bound-by-treaties-to-defend-a-quarter-of-humanity/?utm_term=. 8a0bbc781574) 2. John Lewis Gaddis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Secu rity Policy. Oxford University Press. 2005. 3. “Washington consensus” was a term coined by the economist John Williamson to refer to the policy matrix promoted by leading international organizations du ring the 1980s and 1990s. See John Williamson, editor. The Political Economy of Policy Reform. Washington: Institute for International Economics. 1994. 4. Collin Eaton and Lesley Wroughton. “Pompeo calls on oil industry to support U.S. foreign policy agenda.” Reuters. March 13, 2019. (Source: https://www.reuters.com/ article/ceraweek-energy-pompeo-speech/ceraweek-pompeo-calls-on-oil-industry-to-supportus-foreign-policy-agenda-idUSL1N20Z1YZ) 5. Michael R. Pompeo. “Crimea Is Ukraine.” U.S. Department of State Press Statement (February 27, 2019) (Sou rce: https://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2019/ 02/289749.htm) 6. Michael R. Pompeo. “Cuba”s So-Called Referendum.” U.S. State Department Press Statement. (February 26, 2019) (Sou rce: https://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2019/02/289708.htm) 7. There are many variations of realism. For a classical statement see Hans Morgenthau, Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. Alfred A. Knopf, (1948, and subsequent editions). Also see Kenneth Waltz. Theory of International Politics. McGraw Hill. (1979 and subsequent editions). 8. There are many variations on liberalism and neo-liberalism. See for a classic exposition, see Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye. Power and Interdependent: World Politics in Transition. Little, Brown. 1977. 9. K. Marx and F. Engels. Selected Works. Moscow: Progress Publishers. 1968. Vol. 1, p. 15. 10. Paul Kennedy. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. Random House. 1987. 11. Andrew Bacevich. The Limits of Power: The End of American Exceptionalism. Macmillan, 2008. Also see Stephen M. Walt. The Hell of Good Intentions: America’s Foreign Policy Elite and the Decline of U.S. Primacy. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2018. 12. Francis Fukuyama. The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press, 1992. 13. Samuel P. Huntington. “The Clash of Civilizations.” Foreign Affairs. Vol. 72, 3 (1993): pp. 186-194. 14. John Mearsheimer. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. W.W. Norton. 2001. 15. Christopher Layne. «The Waning of U.S. Hegemony—Myth or Reality? A Review Essay.» International Secu rity Vol. 34, no. 1 (Summer 2009): 147-172. 16. Robert Kagan. The Retu rn of History and the End of Dreams. Knopf. 2008. p. 4. 17. Hal Brands,. “American grand strategy in the post–Cold War era.” Pp. 133-148 in Russell W. Glenn. New Directions in Strategic Thinking. Australian National University Strategic & Defence Studies Centre’s Golden Anniversary Conference Proceedings. 2018. Also see Hal Brands and Charles Edel. The Lessons of Tragedy: Statecraft and World Order. Yale University Press. 2019. 18. Kori Schake, “Back to Basics.” Foreign Affairs (May-June 2019). (Sou rce: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2019-04-16/back-basics) 19. Henry Kissinger. World Order. Penguin Press. 2014. p, 2. 20. Ibid., p. 3. 21. Ibid., p. 5. 22. Ibid., p. 6 23. Eugene Schuyler. Tu rkistan, Notes of a Jou rney in Russian Tu rkistan, Kokand, Bukhara and Kuldja. Editor. Geoffrey Wheeler. Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1966. 24. Geoffrey Wheeler. The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia. Weidenfelf and Nicolson. 1964. 25. S. Frederick Starr. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. 2013. 26. S. Frederick Starr and Svante E. Cornell. Uzbekistan’s New Face. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 2018. 27. Marlene LaRuelle. “New Generations in Central Asia: Opportunities and Challenges of Transformation.” Lecture at the Harriman Institute of Columbia University. February 11, 2019. https://harriman.columbia.edu/event/new-generations-central-asiaopportunities-and-challenges-transformation



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