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The Light of Islam

Abstract

It is known from history that many dynasties lived and ruled not only in their own country but also in other countries. Such dynasties include the Tulunids, the Ikhshidis, and the Bahri Mamluks from the Turkic dynasties. These were the dynasties from Mawarannahr who ruled in Egypt. If we look at the history of these dynasties, we will see that they rose from slavery to the rank of Sultan due to their courage and skillful military leadership. They came to this land from Mawarannahr as slaves and subsequently came to power by their actions. The difference between these dynasties and other kings and sultans is that almost all the rulers inherited the throne from their fathers. Of the representatives of such a dynasty, Abu Abbas Ahmad ibn Tulun (835-884) was born in Bagdad. His father Tulun was introduced to Nuh ibn Asad al-Samani by workers from Bukhara. In 816, as-Samani presented Tulun to Caliph Mamun. Tulun served as head of security for twenty years. After his death, his son Ahmad ibn Tulun was brought up by a friend and focused on receiving religious and military education. The Abbasid caliph sent Ahmad ibn Tulun to Egypt as a governor, and later, thanks to his courage and intelligence, he founded an independent state in Egypt. The Tuluni dynasty (868–905) was one of the first to rule the caliphate, establishing independent local dynasties in Egypt and Syria. Historians have recognized this period as the “Golden Age” due to the construction work and reforms carried out by Tulunids. Egypt was again under the rule of the Abbasid caliphs for 30 years. The Ikhshids (935-969), the second Turkic dynasty of Ferghana origin separated Egypt from the Abbasid caliphs and turned it into an independent state. After the establishment of the Fatimids in 969, the Ikhshid dynasty in Egypt ceased to exist. When the Bahri Mamluks came to power in 1250, they ruled Egypt until 1382. During this period, many historical buildings were built, and the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate was moved to Cairo.

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