The Light of Islam


The article reveals the concept and meaning of a fatwa in modern Muslim countries. Islamic jurisprudence does not always provide direct answers to questions that arise in the new conditions of life, but this does not mean that Sharia norms are outdated. Modern scholars argue that for answers to questions in Sharia, we need to be able to correctly extract them and have the entire spectrum of knowledge, from theological to the most modern. A fatwa can be an individual opinion of a Muslim jurist or an expression of the collective opinion of a group of experts or a special body. When assessing the significance of the fatwa, we have to take into account the legal system of the state under study. From the point of view of legal significance, fatwas are divided into 1) having legal significance - this applies to countries where legislation is based on Sharia; 2) having limited legal force - this form of fatwas is common in countries where Sharia regulates certain areas; 3) those that are of a recommendatory nature and have no legal force - they are common in countries where religion is separated from the state. Modern governments and Islamic clergy work closely together on various social and political issues. In Muslim states with secular legislation, the fatwa is advisory. In almost all Muslim countries, fatwa institutions work closely with government agencies. Coordination on the part of government departments of this religious body is in demand because there are many facts of the publication of fatwas by uncontrolled ulema, which led to social and political contradictions. In the arena of internal political intrigue, fatwas play a regulatory role in exerting a directed influence on the consciousness of the mass of people to maintain stability, prevent conflicts, and sometimes strengthen power. In the modern history of many Muslim countries, there are many examples of solving domestic and foreign policy problems with the help of the institution of fatwas.

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