•  
  •  
 

The Light of Islam

Abstract

During the 18th-19th centuries, British influence started to change the situation of the economy and the society of Malaya as a whole. Steps towards the further expansion of the tin mining industry was a turning point, which affected the whole society. The British Straits Settlements of Penang, Malacca, and Singapore were established between 1786 and 1825 and were governed by the East India Company. The tin trade was thrown open to private individuals. Further developments required more labor and funds involvement and as a result, the Chinese came to the central scene and started to invest hugely in Sungei Ujong and Negeri Sembilan’s tin mining industry. This article discusses the colonial time reforms regarding Malaya’s taxation and land matters. Using library-based research, this study investigated colonial taxation and land issues. Reforms, which occurred in the last two decades of the 19th century in land relations, helped to reshape existed in pre-colonial period subsistent agriculture to the more advanced and systematized export-based income generator to the British. In the last quarter of the 19th century, there was a huge increase in exportable crop production. The rubber depression, which occurred in the 1920s, gave chance for palm oil to become successful agricultural produce. Kennedy states that many of the plantation areas were large ones; by 1933, there were 32 estates with 64,000-planted acres, and this acreage had increased to 79,000 by 1941. Authorities, in order to encourage the production of palm oil and diversify the economy, granted lands on favorable terms. This research fnds that at the end of the colonial rule the British started to use the benefcial terms for the landowners to boost production.

First Page

56

Last Page

62

References

  1. Avazbek Ganiyev Oybekovich, Hassan Shakeel Shah, Mohammad Ayaz. (2017). The Role of the Zakat System during the Colonial-period in Malaysia and. Islamic Banking and Finance Review, 41-55. Retrieved from https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/IBFR/article/ view/185
  2. Ganiyev, A. (2020). INSTITUTION OF ZAKAT IN COLONIAL MALAYSIA. The Light of Islam (1), 10-18. Retrieved from https://uzjournals.edu.uz/iiau/vol2020/ iss1/2
  3. Ganiyev, A., & Umaraliev, S. THE ROLE OF ZAKAT IN THE EARLY STAGES OF THE ISLAMIC CIVILISATION. EPRA International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (IJMR), 25.
  4. Hooker V. M. (2003) Short History of Malaysia: linking east and west. Allen& Unwin. Queensland. Australia
  5. Kennedy, J. (1962). A History of Malaya. London. UK. : Macmillan and Co Ltd.
  6. Muhamad, A. A. (1993). Zakat and Rural Development in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Berita Publishing SDN. BHD.
  7. Nonini, D. M. (1992). British Colonial Rule and the Resistance of the Malay Peasantry, 1900-1957. New Haven, the USA: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. Printed in New Haven, the USA.
  8. National Archive of Malaysia. (1957) Ref. No. 1957/0490377. Statements on Padi and Coconut taxes collected on D.C.C.L. land during 1910. Half of each amount to be sent to D.C.C.L., Kelantan. 357/1911
  9. National Archive of Malaysia. (1957) Reference No. 1957/0490864. Ofcial Memorandum. From British Adviser’s Ofce, Kelantan. To The managing Director, Duff Development Co., Ltd, Kuala Lebir. No. 106/1912
  10. National Archive of Malaysia. (1957) Memorandum. Subject: British Adviser of Kelantan on the private rights and Zakat tax. No. 1605/1914
  11. Rubin P. A. (1974) Piracy, Paramountcy ad Protectorates. Peneribit Universiti Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  12. Sadka, E. (1962). The protected Malay States (1874- 1895). Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia: University of Malaya press.
  13. Sadka, E. (1968). The Protected Malay States. Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia: The other press.
  14. Statements. (1957). Statements on Padi and Coconut taxes collected on D.C.C.L. land during 1910. Half of each amount to be sent to D.C.C.L.Ref. No. 1957/0490377. ,. Kelantan: NationalArchiveofMalaysia, . 357/1911.
  15. Steiner, K. (2014). ‘Unpacking’ a global norm in a local context: an historical overview of the epistemic communities that are shaping zakat practice in malaysia. In Law and Development and the Global Discourses of Legal Transfers (pp. 356-377). e-book: Cambridge University Press.
  16. Secretary of State. (1909) Tax levied on the padi Growers of the Krian District. Federated Malay States. Despatch No. 116
  17. Selangor secretariat. (1949) Memorandum on central collection of Zakat and ftrah
  18. Selangor Secretariat. (1950) Central Collection of the Zakat and Fitrah. No. 5 Sel. 122/49. See Letter of President Muslim Religious Affairs, Selangor.
  19. Selangor Secretariat. (1952) Enactment No. 3 of 1952. State of Selangor. See article 107.
  20. Selangor Secretariat (1953) Scheme for the collection of zakat padi for the season 1953-54
  21. Yassin A. A (1957) Zakat: A Perspective on its Origins and Place in Malay Society. University of Malaysia, Singapore.
  22. Yegar M. 1979) Islam and Islamic institutions in British Malaysia: policies and implementation. Magnes Press, Hebrew University, Jerusalem.

Share

COinS