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The Light of Islam

Abstract

The theoretical foundations of Sufism, as well as spiritual and psychological exercises, methods of self-improvement tempering were developed at the beginning of the IX century. By the same period, the concepts of tariqah, ma’rifah, and haqiqah were formed, based on which a special system of views of tasawwuf was created. One of the main features of tasawwuf is that it is not limited to theoretical knowledge and principles applied in practical life with the help of tarikahs. This trend, called tasawwuf in theory, is called tariqah in practice. Tasawwuf originally comes from an ascetic movement that emphasized practice. Sufs believe that theoretical knowledge alone is not enough to understand Suf issues. In their opinion, through dhikr, mujahadah, and riyadah, the soul gains purity, which makes it possible to comprehend these issues. The article lists the stages and degrees of spiritual development, the paths that must be passed to comprehend the Creator.
In conclusion, we can say that at the stage of asceticism the concept of ma’rifah is not used in tasawwuf. The reason for this is that even though ascetics adhered to seclusion and abstinence, they were deprived of love and divine knowledge. They did not have such qualities as philosophical thinking, striving for spiritual and moral improvement, foresight. The goal of the ascetics was to fnd forgiveness on the day of judgment and attain the bliss of paradise promised in the Qur’an through worship. According to the Sufs, worship for reaching paradise is a form of greed. A Suf should not have self-interest either in this world or on the day of judgment. The only desire of a Suf should be to see the appearance of the Creator

First Page

13

Last Page

20

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