•  
  •  
 

The Light of Islam

Abstract

This article is based on up-to-date foreign research on the use of misinformation as a tool of psychological influence, which has become the most pressing issue at the moment. In practice, the information provided by the mass media has become a means of influencing its content. Extremely fast-paced images of life, a lack of time to study the events reported by the media, and sometimes a lack of personal skills to analyze these reports have led to a wide audience accepting the material in the same way as media outlets. The article attempts to theoretically comprehend the phenomenon of creating and disseminating “fake news” in the modern media space as well as their impact on the cognitive process. The content of the concept of “fake” in the broad sense of the word is revealed as well as the psychological characteristics of its influence on the human mind. If we consider psychologically the concept of “fake news”, then it is defned as “a message stylistically created as real news, but false in whole or in part to manipulate people.” The author’s classifcation of “fake news” is presented, which is based on classifcation criteria such as the ratio of reliable and false information; the reliability of the circumstances of the time and place of the event; the composition of the persons referred to in the “news”; psychological goals of creating and disseminating “news”; the level of perception of the reliability of the “news”, as well as the state and change in cognitive processes during the perception of misinformation (fake news). Varieties of “fake news” are illustrated by specifc examples from the media and Internet resources. Psychological information on measures taken to neutralize the impact of “fake news” is presented. The results and conclusions will be used by students, psychologists, and sociologists, as well as members of the media. The rapid development of the Internet and social networks provides ample opportunity for the spread of fake messages on a global scale, which in turn increases the relevance of research in the feld of information security.

First Page

183

Last Page

192

References

  1. Ayers, M. S., & Reder, L. M. (1998). A theoretical review of the misinformation effect: Predictions from an activation-based memory model. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 5, 1–21.
  2. Alidjanova, L. A. (2019). The value of the scientifc approach in the study of religions and science. ISJ Theoretical & Applied Science, 12 (80), 508-512. Soi: http://s-o-i.org/1.1/TAS-12-80-96 Doi: https://dx.doi. org/10.15863/TAS.2019.12.80.96
  3. Alidjanova, Lazizakhon Abbasovna (2020) “QUESTIONS OF RELIGION AND SOCIETY IN THE WORKS OF IBN KHALDUN,” The Light of Islam: Vol. 2020 : Iss. 1 , Article 5. Available at: https:// uzjournals.edu.uz/iiau/vol2020/iss1/5
  4. Atamuratov Sadulla Atamuratovich, & Sultonov Asliddin Fazliddinovich (2020). POLITIKO-GRAJDANSKIE PROTSESSY V NOVOM UZBEKISTANE. Bulletin Social-Economic and Humanitarian Research, (5 (7)), 60-69. (In Russ.)
  5. Bartlett, F. C. (1932/1995). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  6. Braun, K. A. (1999). Postexperience advertising effects on consumer memory. Journal of Marketing Research, 25, 319–334.
  7. Ceci, S. J., Ross, D. F., & Toglia, M. P. (1987). Suggestibility of children’s memory: Psycholegal implications. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 38–49.
  8. Collins, H. R. (2001). Another reason to dislike Chihuahuas and other small dogs: Behavioural consequences of false memories. Unpublished honors thesis, University of Washington, USA.
  9. Dono, K. (2020). FEATURES OF INFORMATION EXCHANGE ASPECTS IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY. Ижтимоий фанлар, 2(3).
  10. Drivdahl, S. B., & Zaragoza, M. S. (2001). The role of perceptual elaboration and individual differences in the creation of false memories for suggested events. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 15, 265–281.
  11. Fabiani, M., Stadler, M. A., & Wessels, P. M. (2000). True but not false memories produce a sensory signature in human lateralized brain potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 941–949.
  12. F.Mo’minov, Sh.Barotov va boshq. Ochiq axborot tizimlarida axborot-psixologik xavfsizlik. Darslik. – T.: “Fan va texnologiya”, 2013.
  13. Garry, M., Manning, C. G., Loftus, E. F., & Sherman, S. J. (1996). Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confdence that it occurred. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 3, 208–214.
  14. Heaps, C. M., & Nash, M. (2001). Comparing recollective experience in true and false autobiographical memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 27, 920–930.
  15. Hyman, I. E., & Pentland, J. (1996). The role of mental imagery in the creation of false childhood memories. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 101–117.
  16. Ibrakhimov. A.Sh. The negative impact of fabricated hadiths on the formation of a religious worldview. Din psixologiyasida diniy ongning genesezi va transformatsiyasi muammosi/ Ilmiy to’plam. – Toshkent, 2020.
  17. Kalandarova, D. (2020). Features of aspects of information exchange. The Light of Islam, 2020(1), 210-214.
  18. Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall
  19. Kelley, C. M., & Jacoby, L. L. (1996). Memory attributions: Remembering, knowing, and feeling of knowing. In L. M. Reder (Ed.), Implicit memory and metacognition (pp. 287–307). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
  20. Loftus, E. F. (1975). Leading questions and the eyewitness report. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 560–572.
  21. Loftus, E. F., & Ketcham, K. (1991). Witness for The Defense: The accused, The eyewitness, and the expert who puts memory on trial. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  22. Loftus, E. F., Levidow, B., & Duensing, S. (1992). Who remembers best? Individual differences in memory for events that occurred in a science museum. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6, 93–107.
  23. Loftus, E. F., Miller, D. G., & Burns, H. J. (1978). Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 19–31.
  24. Loftus, E. F., & Pickrell, J. E. (1995). The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 720–725.
  25. Mazzoni, G. A. L., Loftus, E. F., & Kirsch, I. (2001). Changing beliefs about implausible autobiographical events: A little plausibility goes a long way. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 7, 51–59.
  26. Mazzoni, G. A. L., Loftus, E. F., Seitz, A., & Lynn, S. (1999). Changing beliefs and memories through dream interpretation. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 125– 144.
  27. McCloskey, M., & Zaragoza, M. (1985). Misleading postevent information and memory for events: Arguments and evidence against memory impairment hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 1–16.
  28. Pezdek, K., Finger, K., & Hodge, D. (1997). Planting false childhood memories. Psychological Science, 8, 437–441.
  29. Porter, S., Yuille, J. C., & Lehman, D. R. (1999). The nature of real, implanted, and fabricated memories for emotional childhood events: Implications for the recovered memory debate. Law and Human Behaviour, 23, 517–537.
  30. Sadulla Otamuratov, Asliddin Sultonov. (2020). Democratic paradoxes of civil processes and necessary of new national idea in Uzbekistan. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(05), 1521 - 1526. Retrieved from http://sersc.org/journals/ index.php/IJAST/article/view/10072
  31. Sultonov, Asliddin (2019) “The new philosophical paradigm of cultural development,” The Light of Islam: Vol. 2019 : Iss. 4 , Article 25. Available at: https:// uzjournals.edu.uz/iiau/vol2019/iss4/25
  32. Wade, K. A., Garry, M., Read, J. D., & Lindsay, D. S. (2002). A picture is worth a thousand lies: Using false photographs to create false childhood memories. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 597–603.
  33. Zaragoza, M. S., McCloskey, M., & Jamis, M. (1987). Misleading postevent information and recall of the original event: Further evidence against the memory impairment hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 13, 36– 44.

Share

COinS