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The Light of Islam

Abstract

The article discusses some issues of phonetics, graphics and morphology covered in the book «Divan lugat at-turk» by the first Turkic scholar Mahmud Kashgari who developed the theoretical foundations of the Turkic languages in the 11th century.

Mahmud Kashgariy in the book «Divanu lugati-t-Turk» elucidated the grammar of Turkic languages by means of Arabic language, methods and terms peculiar to Arabic linguistics. The article deals with the place of arakat, arf and the terms signifying their types in elucidating the phonetic and morphological peculiarities of Arabic and Turkic words.

Mahmud Kashgariy introduced for designating the sounds which are not expressed in the form of letters the notion ḥarakat as in Arabic language and used the terms peculiar to the types of hatakat. He uses such terms in verb, infinitive and participle forms as: to designate the short vowel [a] فتح fatḥ(un), نصب nab(un), تفتح taftau, مفتوح maftūḥ(un),منصوب manūb(un), to indicate the sound [i] كسر kasr(un), مكسور maksūr(un) maksūra(tun), انكسر’inkasara,تكسر taksiru, كسرت kusirat, to express the vowel [u] ضم amm(un),رفع raf‘(un), مضمومة mamūma(tun),مرفوع marfū(un),ضمت ammat, انضمت ‘inammat,ترفع tarfa‘u, to denote the absence of a short vowel sukūn,ساكن sākin (sākina),مسكن musakkan (musakkana), يسكن yaskunu (taskunu),سكنت sakanat.

In «Divanu lugati-t-Turk» the term ḥarf is used to designate phonetic units and postpositions, conjunctions, particles, suffixes, interjections, interrogatives as in Arabic language.

First Page

37

Last Page

44

References

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