The Light of Islam


This article explores the role of religious ideas, concepts and ideas in the cognitive process, the idea of God in the dominant idea of medieval Western civilization, as well as the philosophical views of theologians on the unity and eternity of God. The ideas of Thomas Aquinas about God, the omnipotence of God and his relative and absolute views on him are analyzed. The role of the theological doctrine in European philosophy of the 11th-13th centuries, its transformation into medieval European conceptual dominance was investigated in the theory of theology as a major scientific science with the addition of philosophy to its justification. Reflections on the creation of the doctrine of God in accordance with the criteria and standards of philosophical reasoning, evidence and systematization were analyzed using purely philosophical means, that is, regardless of the evidence and content of divine truth.

The article also considers the features of theism as a classical, traditional philosophical and theological teaching, the role of Brahmanism, Hinduism, Vedic teaching, Taoism, ancient Greek philosophy in the development of pantheistic ideas in Western philosophy. The influence of Augustine’s theocentric worldview on the development of the principle of the unity of God, the superiority of the soul over the body, will and feeling over reason in the philosophy of religion is revealed. It also analyzes the synthesis of the attitude towards religion of the Renaissance period with the conclusions of the natural sciences, criticism of medieval Catholic philosophy and culture, the emergence and survival of religion, as well as the inequality of economic and social development at the level of various peoples, social groups and individuals.