The Light of Islam


By the beginning of the 20 century the European scientists have begun to perceive the poetic ideas put forward in medieval Arabic language and literature including the science of balāǧat as a specific type of artistic expression. As a result, the Arabic poetic thinking and science of balāǧat in the medieval Muslim world began to be called canons.

Scientists agree that canons in literature are the product of certain type of social consciousness and caused by many objective factors. In the theory of medieval Arabic literature, development of poetic views on correlation between form and meaning was complicated. It is well known that the leading scientists of classical Arabic poetry of the 9-11th centuries considered that meaning and form had been interconnected. This outlook has formed the basis of their general philosophical views.

In all works on science of balāǧat, starting with Abdulkakhir Jurjani, correlation between word and meaning is necessary condition of sentence. The meaning, fccording in the Arabic Muslim philosophy is the main notion of the theoretical views. Literary canons, in turn, submit to the laws of language and cannot be achieved without them. The most important one among them is the systematic functioning of language as reflected in the theory of language system.