Bulletin of Gulistan State University


The article discusses the issues of the formation of quantum mechanics, the creation of a mathematical apparatus, physical interpretation, the dialectics of new patterns and the originality of events in quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics, the duality of micro-objects and other peculiar properties are studied. This article discusses the revival of quantum mechanics, the formation of the mathematical apparatus, their physical interpretation, the dialectics of new laws, the peculiarity of quantum-mechanical events and microparticles. At the end of the 19th century, physicists of developed countries could not explain, on the basis of the mathematical apparatus of classical physics and experimental technology, the results of two physical experiments. One of them is related to the results of Michelson's experiments on determining the speed of light, and the second is related to the explanation of the spectral curves of an absolute black body. We know that such branches of physics as thermodynamics and classical statistical physics, mechanics and electrodynamics were then developed. In this period, the laws of radiation of an absolute black body were studied by Wien, Rayleigh-Jeans, and Wien's formula and Wien's displacement law formula were obtained. During this period, Stefan-Boltzmann discovered the law on the proportionality of the energy density of the radiation of an absolute black body to the fourth power of temperature. But to the discoveries of these laws, the task did not find its solution. M. Planck put forward a fundamentally new idea about the need for a new theory to solve the problem. During this period, Boltzmann, based on thermodynamics and classical statistical physics, put forward an idea that is associated with the use of discrete values of physical quantities, and this idea was opposite to the principles of classical physics. Planck, based on these ideas, will try to solve the problem of the radiation of an absolute black body, tried to introduce the following model of an absolute black body. M. Planck introduced the model of an absolutely black body, he considers the model as an empty cavity inside which several bodies with different temperature values are located, through the exchange of heat, after a long time, inside the cavity due to the exchange of heat, a thermodynamic, thermal equilibrium is established. If you open a very small hole, thermal equilibrium is maintained due to the complete absorption of the incoming free. This body is called the black body model. Further, M. Planck defined a formula relating the temperature to the spectral radiation density and explained the radiation spectrum of an absolute black body. As a result of research, a new physical theory was discovered - quantum mechanics.

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