Scientific reports of Bukhara State University


Introduction. Pragma-linguistics is a branch of linguistics that examines the interrelationships between speech functions and speech forms. The speech situation is a situation that causes speech. It consists of several components. They are speaker and interlocutors, speech context, speech objectives, speech act as a form of action or activity, and utterance as a product of verbal action. The last studies show that there are some issues in pragma-linguistics related to speech situation and interactions between speech participants. These problems occur as a result of not being able to manage the speech situation properly or not knowing the usage of speech acts. Analyzing speech acts in different aspects can be a solution to the problem. This article is devoted to the study of speech acts and its’ classification. The theory of speech acts, locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary speech acts are discussed and each type of speech acts proven with the examples. Direct and indirect speech acts are differentiated. Research method. The method in this research is the theoretical approach. The theoretical approach is an approach that aims to build knowledge statement based on constructive and perspectives of linguists. This is a study, aiming to study phenomena of language in a certain time and activities, as well as collecting detailed information using a variety of data collection procedures for cases of that happening. Results and discussions. People usually understand when they say communication only to express their opinions. But this is a misconception. Communication is a linguistic phenomenon because the basis of communication is words. Words form locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary speech acts. In society we perform many functions and influence others through speech acts. Representative, commissive, expressive, declarative and performative speech acts helps to express psychological states during the speech condition. Conclusion. Studying types of speech acts in linguistics is very important. This task isn't only important for people which in linguistic sphere, but also for anyone who intends to communicate. The correct choice of words, the clear structure of the sentences, and the fact that the speech is addressed to the listener with a clear purpose determine the success of the communication.

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