Technical science and innovation


The aim of the research is a quick, easy, economical way to determine milk content. Nowadays, the production of cow’s milk is dominant, but the original quality of non-bovine milk, such as camel’s milk, is now better described and is experiencing growing interest. Camel’s milk, goat’s milk, ewe’s milk and buffalo’s milk have received special attention because of their recognition as potential functional foods from a nutritional point of view. It is admitted that camel’s milk presents a high nutritional quality; e.g., it has three times more vitamin C, minerals, and essential and polyunsaturated Fatty Acids than cow’s milk. It is also considered as exhibiting properties to manage chronic ailments, e.g., tuberculosis, jaundice and asthma.

Cow milk contains more than 20 protein allergens that can cause allergic reactions. The main proteins are casein and whey proteins. Casein fractions (αs1-casein, αs2-casein, and β-casein) and β-lg are the main allergens in cow milk. Allergic reactions to bovine serum albumin (BSA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) heavy chain and α-lactalbumin (α-la) have also been noted. Genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins play an important role in MPA development. Goat milk with the αs2-casein genotype caused less intestinal and systemic sensitization than goat milk with the αs1-casein genotype in guinea pigs. This is very interesting and may have great potentials in selecting goat breeds for different casein genotypes, especially for αs2-casein, which is found in less amount in cows' milk comparing to αs1-casein. Allergic responses to lactoferrin and some cows' milk enzymes have been detected in some patients with MPA but none to mammalian lysozyme. The balance between casein and whey proteins in cow milk may determine its allergenicity. Allergenicity to goat and sheep milk caseins and cheese has been reported for some patients.

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