Technical science and innovation


The paper draws attention to the issue of global climate change on the planet. This process is influenced by the burning of natural resources. Thus, nanotechnology is seen as a possible solution to this issue. The term "nanotechnology" is considered in the perspective of commencing and applying novel materials, devices and systems. Their structure is varied and managed in nanometer range down to atoms, molecules and supramolecular formations. It is shown that the number of atoms in the bulk elements of such structures becomes close to A number of atoms on the surface of these elements. Due to the high surface energy, nanostructures are extremely active, interact with outer sources, changing properties of both environment and their own. The role of the fine substances in the nanostructure development is shown.

In addition, the role of analog-to-digital converters in the design of systems for the deep purification of substances is also presented.

The schematic diagrams of ADC with two-cycle integration are shown. The full cycle of its operation consists of two clock cycles. In the first clock cycle, the input voltage is integrated over a fixed time interval using an analog integrator.

In the second cycle, the capacitor is discharged from the reference voltage source, which has the opposite polarity to the input voltage and is connected to the integrator. This process continues until the condenser returns to its initial condition.

The operation of ADC with successive approximation is described in detail. Methods of increasing the speed of ADC with successive approximation and the possibility of simplifying the circuit for designing this type of ADC are also considered.

Parallel ADCs with direct logical convert are considered, while it is indicated that this type of coding logic uses a direct transition from the unitary code that takes place at the output of the comparators.

In addition, the operation oftracking type ADC based on the feedback voltage of the ADC output code is considered. The components of errors introduced both by the elements of the structure and the errors appearing in the process of transformation are shown.

For devices designed to determine the “inception” and “end” points of the peak, the type of an ADC was selected that could be used in systems for deep purification of substances.

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