The article presents the results of solving the problem of attenuation of an optical signal in fiber-optic communication lines. Widely used modern technical solutions of intermediate amplification-regenerative nodes of fiber-optic communication lines are described. The advantages and disadvantages of existing intermediate fiber optic amplifiers are presented. The benefits of optoelectronic signal regenerators include a full restoration of the original properties of the optical signal. The optoelectronic regenerator allows to limiting the amount of internal and external optical noise by acceptable values, but increases and increases the cost of building optical fiber connections.Optical signal amplifiers are also used to increase the range of fiber-optic communication lines. The main advantage of intermediate fiber optic amplifiers is their relatively simple design and, consequently, low cost, as well as high cost of losses and power output.The technical function of the developed fiber optic amplifier is to create a signal and power amplifier that is evenly distributed inside the fiber located in the region of the fiber containing the fluorescent additive.The characteristics, functional and structural diagrams of an optical repeater with erbium amplifiersare shown in detail. The design features of the construction and the principle of operation of the erbium amplifier are described.
1. Pixtin A.N. Kvantovaya i opticheskaya elektronika. Komponenti VOLS. – M.: Abris, 2015. – pages -656.
2. Liu, C., Deng, L., Liu, D. & Su, L. Modeling of a single multimode fiber imaging system. arxiv:1607.07905. 2018. pages -310.
3. Turtaev, S. et al. High-fidelity multimode fibre-based endoscopy for deep-brain in vivo imaging. Light. Appl. 2018.№ 7. pages -92.
4. Takagi, R., Horisaki, R. & Tanida, J. Object recognition through a multimode fiber. Opt. Rev. 2017. №24. pages -117–120.
5. Borhani, N., Kakkava, E., Moser, C. &Psaltis, D. Learning to see through multimode fibers. Optica. 2018. №5. pages -960.
6. Rahmani, B.Loterie, D.Konstantinou, G.Psaltis, D. & Moser, C. Multimode optical fiber transmission with a deep learning network. Light Appl. 2018. № 7 pages -69.
7. Fan, P., Zhao, T. & Su, L. Deep learning the high variability and randomness inside multimode fibres. Arxiv:1807.09351. 2018. pages -112-120.
8. Cheng PK, et al. Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber based saturable absorber. Scientific Reports. 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-46658-y.
9. Wang L, et al. Femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser at 1 μm via optical microfiber dispersion management. Scientific Reports. 2018. pages -8-473.
10. Zhang Y, et al. Photonics and optoelectronics using nano-structured hybrid perovskite media and their optical cavities. Phys. Reports. 2019. pages -1–51.
11. Luo X, et al. Simple open-cavity pulsed Brillouin fiber laser with broadband supercontinuum generation. Appl. Phys. B. 2017. pages -123-259.
12. Muniz-Cánovas P, Barmenkov YO, Kir’yanov AV, Cruz JL, Andrés MV. ASE narrow-band noise pulsing in erbium-doped fiber amplifier and its effect on self-phase modulation. Opt. Express. 2019. №27. pages -8520–8528.
13. Keppler, Sebastian; Sävert, Alexander; Körner, Jörg; Hornung, Marco; Liebetrau, Hartmut; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, MalteChristoph. "The generation of amplified spontaneous emission in high-power CPA laser systems". Laser & Photonics Reviews. 2016. № 10. pages -264–277.
14. Iqbal, M. A., Al-Khateeb, M. A. Z., Krzczanowicz, L., Phillips, I. D., Harper, P. & Forysiak, W.Linear and Nonlinear Noise Characterisation of Dual Stage Broadband Discrete Raman Amplifiers. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2019. № 34. pages -3679-3688.
15. Iqbal, M. A., Krzczanowicz, L., Philips, I. D., Harper, P. & Forysiak, W.Noise Performance Improvement of Broadband Discrete Raman Amplifiers Using Dual Stage Distributed Pumping Architecture.Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2019. №37. pages -3665-3671.
16. Dario Pilori, Luca Bertignono, AntoninoNespola, FabrizioForghieri, Marco Mazzini, and Roberto Gaudino. “Bidirectional 4-PAM to Double Per-Fiber Capacity in 2-km Intra-Datacenter Links”. In: IEEE Photonics Journal 10.2. 2018. pages -1–10.
17. Dario Pilori, Luca Bertignono, AntoninoNespola, FabrizioForghieri, and Gabriella Bosco. “Comparison of Probabilistically Shaped 64QAM With Lower Cardinality Uniform Constellations in Long-Haul Optical Systems”. In: Journal of Lightwave Technology 36.2. 2018. pages -501–509.
18. Dario Pilori, Chris Fludger, and Roberto Gaudino. “Comparing DMT Variants in Medium-Reach 100G Optically Amplified Systems”. In: Journal of Lightwave Technology 34.14. 2016. pages -3389–3399.
19. A. Almukhtar, A. Al-Azzawi, S. DASb, A. Dhar, M. Paul, Z. Jusoh, et al.Efficient L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with zirconia-Yttria-Aluminum co-doped silica fiber. J Non-Oxide Glasses № 10.2018. pages - 65-70.
20. A. Markom, M.C. Paul, A. Dhar, S. Das, M. Pal, S.K. Bhadra, et al.Performance comparison of enhanced Erbium–Zirconia–Yttria–Aluminum co-doped conventional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. Optik-Int J Light Electron Opt, 132. 2017. pages- 75-79.
Dadamatova, K.T.; Nazarov, A.M.; and Gerasimenko, N. N
"PROBLEMS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATION LINES,"
Technical science and innovation: Vol. 2019
, Article 5.
Available at: https://uzjournals.edu.uz/btstu/vol2019/iss2/5